Pharmacy Technician – What Exactly Do They Do

Choosing the job you want is not like choosing what course to take in college or what dish you want to be served. It’s definitely much harder. At least in college, you only need to sacrifice four to five years of your life, unless you’re inclined to take it further and get a master’s degree. But choosing the right place of employment can potentially affect you for a lifetime so one must choose wisely before making a decision.

In this article, we are going to explore the job description, specifications and qualifications needed to become a pharmacy technician.

The first question one should ask is… what is a pharmacy technician and what does a pharmacy technician do? First of all, a pharmacy technician is not a pharmacist. A pharmacist must have a degree in pharmacy. On the other hand, a pharmacy technician isn’t burdened with the same requirements and responsibilities.

In a nutshell, a pharmacy technician is an assistant pharmacist but has job responsibilities one step higher than that of a pharmacist aide.

Let’s break down the official definition of pharmacy technicians’ job title into two parts. The pharmacist or pharmacy aspect of the job requires you to have a working knowledge of drugs and medicine. A pharmacy technician must also know the difference between cough tablets and aspirin and have the knowledge to navigate the fine line between headache pills and tablets to help relieve PMS and they must also be able to handle the basic operations of a pharmacy if the pharmacist is on vacation or nowhere to be found.

The technical aspect of the job also requires the pharmacy technician to have exemplary organizational skills and they may be also be required to label medicine bottles and categorize them under the correct name or group – the 100 mg label must go on the 100 mg bottle. Just one error, one tiny oversight could result in very negative consequences for a patient.

Other tasks include being able to work under pressure because there will be days that the drugstore or pharmacy where you work has people lined up to get their prescriptions filled.

As a pharmacy technician, you will also be responsible for supplying aid to licensed pharmacists as they provide patients with medication and other healthcare products. A well trained, competent pharmacy technician must therefore be knowledgeable enough to suggest alternative brands for off the counter medication but alternatives for prescribed medication is solely the responsibility of licensed pharmacists.

A pharmacy technician is sometimes required to perform certain manual tasks like labeling bottles, counting pills or doing inventory. In some areas of the country, the tasks of a pharmacy technician and a pharmacist aide overlap so don’t be surprised if on occasion, you end up being asked to complete tasks meant for the latter. This could include acting as a cashier, answering phone inquiries, stocking shelves and other clerical duties. While there are several pharmacy technician duties that a pharmacist aide can never perform, there are few pharmacist aide tasks that a pharmacy technician cannot perform.

The job responsibilities of a pharmacy technician can vary depending on the type of business the pharmacy they work at is located in. For example, a pharmacy technician is usually assigned to handle orders sent through courier or even email in a mail order pharmacy and upon verification that the order is correctly and properly filled up, the pharmacist technician is then required to do the actual counting, weighing and mixing of the prescription.

On the other hand, in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes and so forth a pharmacy technician may have the added responsibilities of record filing and the updating of patient files – especially those related a patient’s medication.

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Pharmacy Tech Certification – Becoming a Certified Pharmacy Technician

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the demand for pharmacy technologists or pharmacy techs is expected to increase by as much as 32% through 2016, making pharmacology technology one of the most promising careers for the coming decade. The increasing demand for pharmacy technologists is brought about by many factors. The major consumers of prescription drugs, the middle-age and the elderly, are expected to increase in the coming years, spurring the need for pharmacy techs to ensure the safe intake of prescribed drugs. Additionally, the latest advances in science and medicine have brought about newer and effective drug treatment options to manage a number of medical conditions; thus, more techs are sought to fill an increasing number of prescriptions. In spite of the economic downturn, a career in pharmacy technology continues to thrive. As long as the advancements in science and technology continue to grow, the number of patients demanding improved and effective treatments and cures rises.

In addition to job security, the expanding role of pharmacy technologists in recent years has made it possible for them to specialize in various fields. Techs can seek employment in retail pharmacies, mail-order pharmacies, Internet pharmacies, physician clinics, pharmaceutical wholesalers, medical and surgical centers, nursing homes, and assisted living facilities.

At present, there is no federal requirement for pharmacy techs; however, employers give more preference to certified pharmacy technologists or to those who are already enrolled in pharmacy tech schools. Pharmacy technician certifications are voluntary in most states but for career advancement, higher salaries, and better benefits and compensation, it is strongly recommended that you obtain a pharmacy tech certification from the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board, or PTCB, or the Institute for the Certification of Pharmacy Technicians right after the completion of a pharmacy tech degree. Having a certification indicates that you have the basic knowledge and skills in pharmacy technology, ensuring the safety of the patients.

To be a certified pharmacy technician you must initially pass the national certification exam administered by the PTCB or ICPT. To be eligible for the examination, you must have a high school diploma or its equivalent and no record of any type of felony convictions within 5 years of your application. Additionally, you must not have a drug or a pharmacy-related conviction. After meeting the requirements, all you have to do is to pass the certification exam.

The pharmacy tech certification exam is administered through a computer. The entire examination consists of 90 multiple choice questions, focusing on the following areas: assisting pharmacists in servicing patients with prescribed medications, maintenance of medication and inventory control, and administration and management of pharmacy practice.

If you pass the exams, you earn the title of Certified Pharmacy Technician or CPhT. A pharmacy tech certification is only valid for two years; thus, certified techs must obtain a recertification. Pharmacy technician recertification requires 20 hours of continuing education every two years. An hour should be allotted to pharmacy law. The required hours of continuing education are obtained from colleges, pharmacy technologist training programs, and pharmacy associations.

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Retail Pharmacy Technician Job Description

I have been writing articles on why and how to become a pharmacy technician, but some recent feedback has made me realize I left out the obvious. What is it that pharmacy technicians do in a pharmacy. Most people figure they help the pharmacist enter prescriptions and count pills. This is true for an outpatient pharmacy, also called a retail pharmacy, but there are many roles for pharmacy techs in healthcare. The rest of this article will discuss the job description of pharmacy techs in a retail or community setting, and provide a bulleted list of tasks. Future articles will cover different pharmacy settings for pharmacy techs and the job descriptions and tasks associated with them as well.

Community/Retail Pharmacy: I have worked retail, and I prefer other settings; however, it is where a large percentage of pharmacy technician jobs are found. What a pharmacy technician can do is determined by the state they work via state laws and rules. In general, technicians cannot provide clinical information to patients or be the final check for prescriptions. In some states, technicians are allowed to provide information on over-the-counter (OTC) medication (ie, medications that do not require a prescription, such as, acetaminophen and ibuprofen). Specific roles that pharmacy technicians can have in a retail pharmacy include: general technician, lead technician, buying technician, compounding technician, and billing/insurance technician. In most pharmacies, pharmacy technicians are general technicians with some of the above listed skill sets. When you go into a larger and busier pharmacy, you can actually have job differentiation where people have assigned specialized tasks (based on the needs of the pharmacy).

Pharmacy technician tasks for retail pharmacies include, but are not limited to:

Collecting patient information (insurance and personal information as needed)
Entering and processing prescriptions in the computer system
Filling and selling prescriptions
Requesting refills from doctor offices for patients
Compounding medications that are not commercially available
Ordering medications
Restocking shelves
Answering the phone
Working with insurance companies on approving payment for certain medications
Maintaining the cash register and conducting accounting functions
Retail pharmacies tend to get a bad rap from within the pharmacy profession. Although I prefer hospital (which will be the topic of the next article), I enjoyed my time in a retail pharmacy. I was able to get to know the customers (I like say patients) personally. It is a great feeling when a long-time customer comes to the pharmacy and you know them by name, maybe a little about their family, and most important you know their medical history. Because of this relationship, you are able to ensure that the patient’s medication regimen is optimal, as a technician you can help determine if there are generic alternatives to medications prescribed in order to help the patient save money.

In summary, retail pharmacies are the most common type of pharmacy, and therefore the place where the majority of pharmacy techs are employed. Due to an increasing elderly population (thank you baby boomers), retail pharmacies will continue to increase in demand. If you find a pleasant retail pharmacy to work in, and good staff to work with, a retail pharmacy technician position can be a positive experience.

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What a Pharmacy Technician Does

What Does a Pharmacy Technician Do?

I have been writing articles on why and how to become a pharmacy technician, but some recent feedback has made me realize I left out the obvious. What is it that pharmacy technicians do in a pharmacy? Most people figure they help the pharmacist enter prescriptions and count pills. This is true for an outpatient pharmacy, also called a retail pharmacy, but there are many roles for pharmacy technicians in healthcare. The rest of this article will list different types of pharmacy settings and the roles that pharmacy technicians have in these settings.

Community/Retail Pharmacy:

I have worked retail, and I prefer other settings; however, it is where a large percentage of pharmacy technician jobs are found. What a pharmacy technician can do is determined by the state they work via state laws and rules. In general, technicians cannot provide clinical information to patients or be the final check for prescriptions. In some states, technicians are allowed to provide information on over-the-counter (OTC) medication (ie, medications that do not require a prescription, such as, acetaminophen and ibuprofen). Pharmacy technician tasks include, but are not limited to:

• Collecting patient information (insurance and personal information as needed)
• Entering and processing prescriptions in the computer system
• Filling and selling prescriptions
• Requesting refills from doctor offices for patients
• Compounding medications that are not commercially available
• Ordering medications
• Restocking shelves
• Answering the phone
• Working with insurance companies on approving payment for certain medications
• Maintaining the cash register and conducting accounting functions

Hospital Pharmacy:

There are many different roles for pharmacy technicians in a hospital pharmacy. I know this type of pharmacy best since this is where most of my work has been. The most common are technicians who work in the central pharmacy. In addition we have decentralized techs, sterile compounding techs, billing techs, OR techs, narcotic techs, database techs, automation techs, team lead techs, and buyer techs. These technicians as a whole perform the following tasks, but not limited to:

• Filling new orders, this includes a variety of medications from oral medications to specially prepared sterile compound medications (including chemotherapy meds)
• Answering the phone
• Tubing medications (if the pharmacy has a pneumatic tube station)
• Preparing medications for delivery
• Delivering medications
• Assisting floor pharmacists with medication histories
• Assisting floor pharmacists with IV drip checks
• Handling missing dose calls
• Billing medications where nurse charting does not bill
• Maintaining the pharmacy database
• Restocking operating rooms and anesthesia trays with appropriate medication
• Dispensing and tracking all controlled substances throughout the hospital
• Maintaining automation equipment [automated dispensing cabinets that store medication on nursing units, automatic fill systems (typically called Robot-Rx)]
• Purchasing of all medication and supplies needed in the pharmacy
• Leading and managing the technician workforce, including upkeep of schedules

Long-Term Care Pharmacy:

I have worked at a couple of long-term care pharmacies, and I think it is a great place to be a technician. They typically employee a lot of techs because the work load lends itself to a lot of technician tasks. These pharmacies provide the medication needs for nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and psychiatric facilities. The typical pharmacy is located in a warehouse. It does not have an open pharmacy for people to come to; they receive orders by fax and deliver all medications via couriers or drivers to facilities. The oral medication is filled in blister packs (cards of 30 tabs that are used to provide a 1 month supply of medication), or some other mechanism that provide the facility with an extended amount of medication doses that can be safely and cleanly kept until doses are due. Pharmacy technician tasks include, but are not limited to:

• Filling new and refill orders (different from hospital because of the number of doses provided)
• Processing new order and refills coming through the fax machine
• Order entry of prescriptions and printing of labels for fill techs
• Sterile compounding of medications (although there aren’t as many sterile compounded medications as a hospital, there are still enough that most long-term care pharmacies have a few techs specialize in sterile compounding
• Billing medications to homes
• Controlled substance dispensing and documentation
• Ordering medications and supplies
• Restocking medications that are returned that are still suitable for reuse.

Home Infusion Pharmacy:

These pharmacies primarily care for patients that require some form of IV or other non oral medication, and want to receive the therapy at home (hence the name home-infusion). I have also worked in a home-infusion pharmacy. As a tech I had a lot of experience in sterile compounding, and found my self in any position that needed a IV room tech. Pharmacy technician tasks include, but are not limited to:

• Compounding sterile preparations in the clean room
• Preparing supplies associated with sterile medication administration for delivery
• Billing medications delivered to patients home
• Coordinating deliveries of medications with patients
• Entering orders in the pharmacy order entry system

Nuclear Pharmacy:

No, I have not worked in a nuclear pharmacy (I am sure you were staring to think I got around quite a bit, but I have been in pharmacy for about 17 years). I have some friends who work in a nuclear pharmacy. The hours are interesting; they usually come in at about 3 AM and work until about noon. These types of pharmacies make radioactive compounds and they need to be made in a way that when they are delivered to the hospital or clinic administering them, that the dose has degraded to a specific amount. Without going into too much detail, these medications have short half-lives. So they have to time the compounding of the product with the time it takes to deliver the medication and the time the patient is to receive the dose. The job pays well, but as you can imagine, there are not a ton of these positions available. Pharmacy technician tasks include, but are not limited to:

• Preparing radioactive products
• Cleaning and preparing sterile compounding areas
• Entering orders into the pharmacy system
• Coordinating dose due times with deliveries and preparation
• Billing products to hospital or clinic

Health Plans/HMO Pharmacy Group:

I saved this one for last because it is a lot different. Most healthcare plans have a pharmacy department. They manage the pharmacy benefit of the health plan. I have worked with my companies health plan and have spent some time with the pharmacy department. Pharmacy technician tasks include, but are not limited to:

• Answering phone calls and providing support for patients on the pharmacy benefit
• Reviewing prior authorization requests
• Providing support to physicians and drug companies for information requests
• Supporting the pharmacists in the department with database and projects as needed

As you can see, pharmacy technician roles can be very diverse. The best advice I can give you is to figure out what setting you would most like to work in and obtain some experiential hours in that setting. I have found that the type of pharmacy you train in is typically the type of pharmacy you end up working in.

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Cannabis Addiction Harms You

Cannabis a plant that seems to give a lot of pleasure to the one who uses it but in reality it is a drug that sucks a person’s life from him/her. What might have come to you, as a little fun when you first tried it might have become an addiction for you? Cannabis or marijuana is an addiction that can be commonly seen in the youth where they think they are actually enjoying their life. Instead they are putting an end to their own life. By getting addicted to this they can get nothing but frustration and low self-esteem.

Cannabis was always common where Indians and the people from the Nepal were the ones that used it; all this had started ages back. However Cannabis had become popular in 70′s where cannabis had become a modern trend and many seemed to have got addicted ever since then. It was the time of flower power and the generation of baby boomer’s came to life.

The people that are addicted to cannabis are increasing ever since. Cannabis addiction has many dreadful symptoms, the unusual habit of sleeping, and many more. Cannabis is usually consumed in a rolled cigarette where the contents are put in an orderly position and consumed by pulling long breaths of the joint for getting a better inhaling sensation. It can also be consumed in a different way where people use to eat it e.g. a baked cake can be used in the process. After consuming this, a person reaches a stage where he/she can do nothing but lose all energy and of to a sleep that is nothing more than an unconscious state of mind.

There are many rehab centres all over the world to help a person by getting him treated out of the drug addiction, but this way of forcefully getting rid of a persons drug habit can make a person hungry for drugs once he/she is out of the rehab centre. An advisable way for proper cure for your addiction has to be the ancient hypnosis treatment. A hypnosis treatment directly comes in contact with your mind that prompts you to think of cannabis. Hypnosis is something that you can learn all by yourself by just downloading the mp3 contents directly from the net. Hypnosis in the past has been the only way of curing any addiction that is related to a person. Marijuana addiction can be solved with best results by using hypnosis as your curing mode.

Hypnosis treatment seems to be the only thing that you can rely on as the results that you will get from it are amazing, however help from friends and family is essential as they are the ones who are supposed to motivate the patient for the use of hypnosis. Mp3 downloads can help you in a great way to loose all your connections with cannabis addiction. Once done with this you will be leading a happy life without the use pf drugs interrupting your life. Just download the mp3 content from the Internet and see a rapid change in your life and health.

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What Is Cannabis Doing To Your Mental Health?

While there is little doubt that it’s dangerous to use cannabis and then drive a car or go to work, debate has raged for years over the health impact of cannabis, particularly mental health. So what does the science say?

Before we get into what the science and research says, it’s important to realise that cannabis is a widely used drug. In many countries it’s the most widely used illicit drug and this is the case in many parts of the world. In some areas its cultivation is allowed and it’s part of our culture. It seems to have become common place for politicians to admit to trying it at least once, to show that they’re more human!

But trying it and using it regularly are two different things, and it’s more frequent users who are putting themselves most at risk. Because there’s little doubt that the use of cannabis can be bad for mental health and can cause a wide range of issues.

Credible research has found cannabis use associated with issues such as:

Psychosis, hallucinations and delusions. Add confused thinking, disturbances in emotions and behaviour, and muffled speech to this list.
Schizophrenia, which is a specific psychotic illness that we’ve all heard about. There is evidence that cannabis can cause schizophrenia in people who are already at risk of the illness. Most people who are at risk of schizophrenia aren’t aware they are, making a simple cannabis joint every now and then more of a risk than you might think.
It’s also commonly thought that cannabis use can cause depression, although there is no clear evidence of this. What the evidence does say is that people who use cannabis are more likely to be depressed than those who don’t, but the exact link is not known. It could simply be because of a common myth that cannabis helps make people happier, but the reverse can actually be true.
Cannabis users can also experience issues such as anxiety, panic attacks, lack of motivation, tiredness and difficulty concentrating.
Cannabis use is also one factor in suicides in young people.
So what does this evidence mean? Should you try cannabis? If you’re a regular user should you stop?

Like any drug – including legal drugs like alcohol and tobacco – there is a risk in the use of cannabis. You may use cannabis regularly all your life without an issue, but you might not be that lucky.

Perhaps the best advice is quite simple: if there’s a history of mental illness in your family, steer away from cannabis. With clear evidence that a cannabis user with a family history of mental illness is more likely to suffer mental health problems, it’s simply not worth taking the risk.

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The Health Effects of Cannabis – Informed Opinions

Enter any bar or public place and canvass opinions on cannabis and there will be a different opinion for each person canvassed. Some opinions will be well-informed from respectable sources while others will be just formed upon no basis at all. To be sure, research and conclusions based on the research is difficult given the long history of illegality. Nevertheless, there is a groundswell of opinion that cannabis is good and should be legalised. Many States in America and Australia have taken the path to legalise cannabis. Other countries are either following suit or considering options. So what is the position now? Is it good or not?

The National Academy of Sciences published a 487 page report this year (NAP Report) on the current state of evidence for the subject matter. Many government grants supported the work of the committee, an eminent collection of 16 professors. They were supported by 15 academic reviewers and some 700 relevant publications considered. Thus the report is seen as state of the art on medical as well as recreational use. This article draws heavily on this resource.

The term cannabis is used loosely here to represent cannabis and marijuana, the latter being sourced from a different part of the plant. More than 100 chemical compounds are found in cannabis, each potentially offering differing benefits or risk.

CLINICAL INDICATIONS

A person who is “stoned” on smoking cannabis might experience a euphoric state where time is irrelevant, music and colours take on a greater significance and the person might acquire the “nibblies”, wanting to eat sweet and fatty foods. This is often associated with impaired motor skills and perception. When high blood concentrations are achieved, paranoid thoughts, hallucinations and panic attacks may characterize his “trip”.

PURITY

In the vernacular, cannabis is often characterized as “good shit” and “bad shit”, alluding to widespread contamination practice. The contaminants may come from soil quality (eg pesticides & heavy metals) or added subsequently. Sometimes particles of lead or tiny beads of glass augment the weight sold.

THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS

A random selection of therapeutic effects appears here in context of their evidence status. Some of the effects will be shown as beneficial, while others carry risk. Some effects are barely distinguished from the placebos of the research.

Cannabis in the treatment of epilepsy is inconclusive on account of insufficient evidence.
Nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy can be ameliorated by oral cannabis.
A reduction in the severity of pain in patients with chronic pain is a likely outcome for the use of cannabis.
Spasticity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients was reported as improvements in symptoms.
Increase in appetite and decrease in weight loss in HIV/ADS patients has been shown in limited evidence.
According to limited evidence cannabis is ineffective in the treatment of glaucoma.
On the basis of limited evidence, cannabis is effective in the treatment of Tourette syndrome.
Post-traumatic disorder has been helped by cannabis in a single reported trial.
Limited statistical evidence points to better outcomes for traumatic brain injury.
There is insufficient evidence to claim that cannabis can help Parkinson’s disease.
Limited evidence dashed hopes that cannabis could help improve the symptoms of dementia sufferers.
Limited statistical evidence can be found to support an association between smoking cannabis and heart attack.
On the basis of limited evidence cannabis is ineffective to treat depression
The evidence for reduced risk of metabolic issues (diabetes etc) is limited and statistical.
Social anxiety disorders can be helped by cannabis, although the evidence is limited. Asthma and cannabis use is not well supported by the evidence either for or against.
Post-traumatic disorder has been helped by cannabis in a single reported trial.
A conclusion that cannabis can help schizophrenia sufferers cannot be supported or refuted on the basis of the limited nature of the evidence.
There is moderate evidence that better short-term sleep outcomes for disturbed sleep individuals.
Pregnancy and smoking cannabis are correlated with reduced birth weight of the infant.
The evidence for stroke caused by cannabis use is limited and statistical.
Addiction to cannabis and gateway issues are complex, taking into account many variables that are beyond the scope of this article. These issues are fully discussed in the NAP report.
CANCER
The NAP report highlights the following findings on the issue of cancer:

The evidence suggests that smoking cannabis does not increase the risk for certain cancers (i.e., lung, head and neck) in adults.
There is modest evidence that cannabis use is associated with one subtype of testicular cancer.
There is minimal evidence that parental cannabis use during pregnancy is associated with greater cancer risk in offspring.
RESPIRATORY DISEASE
The NAP report highlights the following findings on the issue of respiratory diseases:

Smoking cannabis on a regular basis is associated with chronic cough and phlegm production.
Quitting cannabis smoking is likely to reduce chronic cough and phlegm production.
It is unclear whether cannabis use is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, asthma, or worsened lung function.
IMMUNE SYSTEM
The NAP report highlights the following findings on the issue of the human immune system:

There exists a paucity of data on the effects of cannabis or cannabinoid-based therapeutics on the human immune system.
There is insufficient data to draw overarching conclusions concerning the effects of cannabis smoke or cannabinoids on immune competence.
There is limited evidence to suggest that regular exposure to cannabis smoke may have anti-inflammatory activity.
There is insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association between cannabis or cannabinoid use and adverse effects on immune status in individuals with HIV.
MORTALITY
The NAP report highlights the following findings on the issue of the increased risk of death or injury:

Cannabis use prior to driving increases the risk of being involved in a motor vehicle accident.
In states where cannabis use is legal, there is increased risk of unintentional cannabis overdose injuries among children.
It is unclear whether and how cannabis use is associated with all-cause mortality or with occupational injury.
BRAIN FUNCTION
The NAP report highlights the following findings on the issue of cognitive performance and mental health:

Recent cannabis use impairs the performance in cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention. Recent use may be defined as cannabis use within 24 hours of evaluation.
A limited number of studies suggest that there are impairments in cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention in individuals who have stopped smoking cannabis.
Cannabis use during adolescence is related to impairments in subsequent academic achievement and education, employment and income, and social relationships and social roles.
Cannabis use is likely to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia and other psychoses; the higher the use, the greater the risk.
In individuals with schizophrenia and other psychoses, a history of cannabis use may be linked to better performance on learning and memory tasks.
Cannabis use does not appear to increase the likelihood of developing depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder.
For individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorders, near daily cannabis use may be linked to greater symptoms of bipolar disorder than for nonusers.
Heavy cannabis users are more likely to report thoughts of suicide than are nonusers.
Regular cannabis use is likely to increase the risk for developing social anxiety disorder.
It must be reasonably clear from the foregoing that cannabis is not the magic bullet for all health issues that some good-intentioned but ill-advised advocates of cannabis would have us believe. Yet the product offers much hope. Solid research can help to clarify the issues. The NAP report is a solid step in the right direction. Unfortunately, there are still many barriers to researching this amazing drug. In time the benefits and risks will be more fully understood. Confidence in the product will increase and many of the barriers, social and academic, will fall by the wayside.

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